Development of a Biomimetic Hydrogel Based on Predifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem-Cell-Derived ECM for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Development of a Biomimetic Hydrogel Based on Predifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem-Cell-Derived ECM for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

The use of decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) as a biomaterial has been an vital step ahead for the event of purposeful tissue constructs. In addition to tissues and organs, cell cultures are gaining a lot of consideration as a substitute supply of dECM. In this work, a novel biomimetic hydrogel is developed primarily based on dECM obtained from mesenchymal stem cells (mdECM) for cartilage tissue engineering. To this finish, cells are seeded underneath particular tradition situations to generate an early chondrogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) offering cues and components essential for cartilage improvement.

The composition is decided by quantitative, histological, and mass spectrometry methods. Moreover, the decellularization course of is evaluated by measuring the DNA content material and compositional analyses, and the hydrogel is formulated at completely different concentrations (3% and 6% w/v). Results present that mdECM derived hydrogels possess glorious biocompatibility and appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties for their injectability. Furthermore, it’s evidenced that this hydrogel is ready to induce chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with out supplemental components and, moreover, to kind hyaline cartilage-like tissue after in vivo implantation. These findings exhibit for the primary time the potential of this hydrogel primarily based on mdECM for functions in cartilage restore and regeneration.

Manufacturing macroscale cell-laden architectures is one of the most important challenges confronted these days within the area of tissue engineering. Such dwelling constructs, in reality, pose strict necessities for vitamins and oxygen provide that may hardly be addressed by means of easy diffusion in vitro or with out a purposeful vasculature in vivo. In this context, within the final twenty years, a substantial quantity of work has been carried out to develop sensible supplies that might actively present oxygen-release to distinction native hypoxia in large-size constructs.

This evaluation offers an summary of the at the moment obtainable oxygen-releasing supplies and their synthesis and mechanism of motion, highlighting their capacities underneath in vitro tissue cultures and in vivo contexts. Additionally, we additionally showcase an rising idea, herein termed as “dwelling supplies as releasing techniques”, which depends on the mixture of biomaterials with photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly algae, in an “unconventional” try to produce the broken or re-growing tissue with the required provide of oxygen.

Prionace glauca pores and skin collagen bioengineered constructs as a promising strategy to set off cartilage regeneration

Representing a technique of marine by-products valorization, primarily based on isolation of biocompounds and evaluation of biomedical applicability, the potential of blue shark (Prionace glauca (PG)) pores and skin collagen to induce chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASC) was investigated, with and with out exogenous stimulation. For that, a cryogelation methodology was utilized to supply extremely interconnected porous three-d (3D) constructs made of collagen and collagen:hyaluronic acid (20:1). In vitro research reveal that hASC adhere abundantly to the constructs which then suggests the early chondrogenic differentiation of these cells.

These findings are supported by the mRNA expression encoding chondrogenic-related markers like Coll II and Sox-9 which can be markedly upregulated at an early stage for each situations, with and with out exogenous stimulation. The introduction of hyaluronic acid (Hya) appears to play a essential function at later time factors, as proven by the evident immunodetection of aggrecan (ACAN), even with out exogenous stimulation. It is hypothesized that the PG collagen itself can help chondrogenic differentiation at early time factors, however exogenous stimulation is required to make sure phenotype upkeep. The current work highlights the relevance of utilizing blue shark collagen biopolymer as a constructing block to supply extremely efficient short-term matrices for cartilage functions.

 Development of a Biomimetic Hydrogel Based on Predifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem-Cell-Derived ECM for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

L-histidine controls the hydroxyapatite mineralization with plate-like morphology: Effect of focus and media

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principle inorganic element of bone and dentin, and their non-stoichiometric compositions and plate-shaped morphology is accountable for their bioactivity and osteoconductive nature. Collagenous (CPs) and non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) facilitate mineralization and regulate structural properties of HA by means of their side-chains. The bioactivity of artificial HA doesn’t often match with the HA present in bone and, subsequently, there may be a want to know the function of biomolecules in bone mineralization with the intention to develop non-stoichiometric plate-shaped HA for bone grafts. Role of a number of amino acids has been investigated however the function of L-his has been not often investigated underneath physiological situations although it’s a half of HA inhibitor proteins, like albumin, amelogenin, and histidine-rich proteins.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BA-100 100 µg
EUR 326.64

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BA-25 25 µg
EUR 166.48

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BB-200 200 µg
EUR 457.68

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BB-50 50 µg
EUR 224.72

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BF-200 200 µg
EUR 472.24

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BF-50 50 µg
EUR 151.92

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPE-100 100 µg
EUR 268.4

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPE-25 25 µg
EUR 151.92

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPP-100 100 µg
EUR 574.16

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPP-25 25 µg
EUR 268.4

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPP5.5-100 100 µg
EUR 515.92

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPP5.5-25 25 µg
EUR 282.96

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPU-50 50 µg
EUR 122.8

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control

RIGG2BPU-500 500 µg
EUR 370.32

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (APC)

abx405049-100tests 100 tests
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (Biotin)

abx405050-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 314
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (FITC)

abx405052-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 342
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (RPE)

abx405055-100tests 100 tests
EUR 356
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control FITC

1F-169-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 108

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control FITC

1F-169-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 177

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control Purified

11-169-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 136

Rat IgG2b unconjugated (isotype control)

20005-13 100 ug
EUR 164

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control

abx139006-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 314
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control

abx139011-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 314
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control

abx405056-100tests 100 tests
EUR 411
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control

abx405061-1mg 1 mg
EUR 1080
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control

abx200580-100ug 100 ug
EUR 314
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (Pacific Blue)

abx405054-100tests 100 tests
EUR 384
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control LOW ENDOTOXIN

12-169-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 136

Rat IgG2b-Biotin conjugate (isotype control)

20005-13-B 100 ug
EUR 202

Rat IgG2b-FITC conjugate (isotype control)

20005-13-F 100 ug
EUR 225

Rat IgG2b-HRP conjugate (isotype control)

20005-13-HP 100 ug
EUR 202

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (APC)

abx139017-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (Biotin)

abx139018-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 384
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (FITC)

abx139019-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 384
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (PE)

abx139020-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (PerCP)

abx139021-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (APC)

abx405057-100tests 100 tests
EUR 481
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (Biotin)

abx405058-100tests 100 tests
EUR 411
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (FITC)

abx405059-100tests 100 tests
EUR 411
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (RPE)

abx405060-100tests 100 tests
EUR 467
  • Shipped within 1 week.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (FITC)

abx200581-100ug 100 ug
EUR 314
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (PE)

abx200582-50ug 50 ug
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (APC)

abx200583-50ug 50 ug
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (PerCP)

abx200584-100ug 100 ug
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Purified

11-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 88

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Purified

11-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 136

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Purified

11-801-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 88

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Purified

11-801-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 136

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control APC

1A-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 122

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control APC

1A-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 204

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Biotin

1B-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 108

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Biotin

1B-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 177

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control FITC

1F-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 108

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control FITC

1F-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 177

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PE

1P-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 122

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PE

1P-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 204

Mouse IgG2b isotype control, purified

20102-103 100 ug
EUR 141

Mouse IgG2b Isotype control; Concentrate

NG907C 1 ml
EUR 357

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PerCP

PC-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 122

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PerCP

PC-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 204

Mouse IgG2b-FITC (isotype control)

MG2bF-100 100 Tests
EUR 408

Rat IgG2b-R-PE conjugate (isotype control)

20005-13-PE 25 tests
EUR 202

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (CF-Blue)

abx200585-100ug 100 ug
EUR 425
  • Shipped within 3-5 working days.

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (OC-515)

abx200586-100ug 100 ug
EUR 481
  • Shipped within 2-3 weeks.

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein

35R-0025 100 ug
EUR 165
Description: Rat monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein

35R-0031 100 ug
EUR 181
Description: Mouse monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein

Mouse IgG2b-Biotin conjugate (isotype control)

20102-103-B 50 Tests
EUR 164

Mouse IgG2b-FITC conjugate (isotype control)

20102-103-F 50 tests
EUR 164

Mouse IgG2b-HRP conjugate (isotype control)

20102-103-HP 50 Tests
EUR 164

Mouse IgG2b-PE conjugate (isotype control)

20102-103-PE 50 Tests
EUR 164

IgG2b Kappa Isotype Control antibody (Biotin)

61R-2065 500 ug
EUR 284
Description: Mouse monoclonal IgG2b Kappa Isotype Control antibody (Biotin)

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PE-Cy5

T8-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 136

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PE-Cy5

T8-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 231

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PerCP-Cy5.5

T9-692-C025 0.025 mg
EUR 170

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control PerCP-Cy5.5

T9-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 300

Rat IgG2b-R-PE-Cy5.5 conjugate (isotype control)

20005-13-PC5 25 tests
EUR 213

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), Untagged-100ug

QAB62-100ug 100ug
EUR 131

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), APC-100ug

QAB62-APC-100ug 100ug
EUR 208

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), FITC-100ug

QAB62-F-100ug 100ug
EUR 182

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), PE-100ug

QAB62-PE-100ug 100ug
EUR 182

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), V450-100ug

QAB62-V450-100ug 100ug
EUR 200

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (FITC)

35R-0006 100 ug
EUR 235
Description: Rat monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (FITC)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (FITC)

35R-0012 100 ug
EUR 235
Description: Mouse monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (FITC)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (PE)

35R-0014 100 ug
EUR 278
Description: Rat monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (PE)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (PE)

35R-0020 100 ug
EUR 278
Description: Mouse monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (PE)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (biotin)

35R-0021 100 ug
EUR 208
Description: Rat monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (biotin)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (allophycocyanin)

35R-0032 100 ug
EUR 386
Description: Rat monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (allophycocyanin)

IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (allophycocyanin)

35R-0038 50 ug
EUR 208
Description: Mouse monoclonal IgG2b Isotype Control Fc fusion protein (allophycocyanin)

Mouse IgG2b-PE-Cy5 conjugate (isotype control)

20102-103-PC5 50 Tests
EUR 225

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control, FITC Conjugated mAb

28279-50Tests 50 Tests
EUR 252

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control, PE Conjugated mAb

28280-50Tests 50 Tests
EUR 252

Mouse IgG2b Isotype control; Ready-To-Use

NG907 7 ml
EUR 334

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), APC-Cy7-100ug

QAB62-APC7-100ug 100ug
EUR 200

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), PerCP-Cy5.5-100ug

QAB62-PCP55-100ug 100ug
EUR 200

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), PE-Cy5-100ug

QAB62-PE5-100ug 100ug
EUR 208

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), PE-Cy7-100ug

QAB62-PE7-100ug 100ug
EUR 200

Rat IgG2b Isotype Control (LTF-2), QFluor-710-100ug

QAB62-QF710-100ug 100ug
EUR 200

IgG2b isotype control Monoclonal Antibody [MPC11], FITC Conjugated

A24006 50 µg Ask for price
Description: fast delivery possible

IgG2b isotype control Monoclonal Antibody [MPC11], PE Conjugated

A24007 200 µg Ask for price
Description: The best epigenetics products

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), Untagged-100ug

QAB67-100ug 100ug
EUR 141

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), APC-100ug

QAB67-APC-100ug 100ug
EUR 191

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), FITC-100ug

QAB67-F-100ug 100ug
EUR 149

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), PE-100ug

QAB67-PE-100ug 100ug
EUR 216

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), V450-100ug

QAB67-V450-100ug 100ug
EUR 216

Rat IgG-Biotin conjugate (isotype control) (Isotype control)

20005-B 100 ug
EUR 164

Rat IgG-FITC conjugate (isotype control) (Isotype control)

20005-F 100 ug
EUR 164

Rat IgG-HRP conjugate (isotype control) (Isotype control)

20005-HP 100 ug
EUR 164

Rat IgG-PE conjugate (isotype control) (Isotype control)

20005-PE 25 tests
EUR 202

IgG2b isotype control Monoclonal Antibody [MPC11], DyLight 488 Conjugated

A24005 200 µg Ask for price
Description: Ask the seller for details

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control DyLight® 488

L4-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 213

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control DyLight® 650

L6-692-C100 0.1 mg
EUR 213

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), APC-Cy7-100ug

QAB67-APC7-100ug 100ug
EUR 251

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), PerCP-Cy5.5-100ug

QAB67-PCP55-100ug 100ug
EUR 233

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), PE-Cy7-100ug

QAB67-PE7-100ug 100ug
EUR 233

Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control (MPC-11), QFluor-710-100ug

QAB67-QF710-100ug 100ug
EUR 216

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BA-50 50 µg
EUR 323

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BCFB-100 100 µg
EUR 323

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BF-100 100 µg
EUR 199.5

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BPE-50 50 µg
EUR 323

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BPP-100 100 µg
EUR 323

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BPP5.5-100 100 µg
EUR 323

Mouse IgG2b Control

ICIGG2BPU-100 100 µg
EUR 199.5

Rat IgG1 Isotype Control

abx405020-05mg 0.5 mg
EUR 384
  • Shipped within 1 week.

In this research, L-his and L-glu had been used to change the structural properties of HA in numerous experimental situations and buffer techniques (tris and hepes). The outcomes confirmed that L-his was in a position to regulate the plate-shaped morphology of HA in each experimental situation, in contrast to the L-glu, the place the crystal morphology was regulated by experimental situations. Both amino acids behaved in another way in DI water, tris, and hepes buffer, and the media used influenced the precipitation time and structural properties of HA.

Hepes and tris buffers additionally influenced the HA precipitation course of. Overall, the research revealed that L-his could also be used as an efficient regulator of plate-shaped morphology of HA, as a substitute of massive NCPs/proteins, for designing biomaterials for bone regeneration functions and the selection of buffer system is vital in designing and evaluating the techniques for mineralization. In cell tradition research, mouse osteoblast precursor cells (MC3T3-E1) confirmed highest proliferation on the bone-like plate-shaped HA, amongst all of the HA samples investigated.


In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend compatibilized with poly(ε-caprolactone- b-tetrahydrofuran) in Wistar rats

In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend compatibilized with poly(ε-caprolactone- b-tetrahydrofuran) in Wistar rats

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) are two necessary aliphatic esters identified for his or her biodegradability and bioresorbability properties; the previous is stiffer and brittle whereas the smaller modulus of the latter permits an appropriate elongation. The new biomaterials being developed from the blend of these two polymers (PLA and PCL) is opportune because of the decreasing interfacial stress between their immiscible phases. In a earlier research, PLA/PCL immiscible blend when compatibilized with poly(ε-caprolactone-b-tetrahydrofuran) resulted in enhanced ductility and toughness no cytotoxic impact in vitro exams. There is little printed knowledge on the impact of poly(ε-caprolactone-b-tetrahydrofuran) on PLA and PCL biocompatibility and biodegradability in vivo exams.

This research focuses on evaluating the behavioral response and polymer-tissue interplay of compatibilized PLA/PCL blend in comparison with neat PLA implanted by way of intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC) in male Wistar rats, distributed in 4 experimental teams: neat PLA, PLA/PCL blend, sham, and management at 2-, 8- and 24-weeks post-implantation (WPI). Open-field take a look at was carried out to appraise emotionality and spontaneous locomotor exercise. Histopathological investigation utilizing hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and picrosirius-hematoxylin (PSH) was used to evaluate polymer-tissue interplay. Modifications in PLA and the PLA / PCL blend’s floor morphology have been decided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

PLA group defecated extra typically than PLA/PCL rats 2 and Eight WPI. Conjunctive capsule growth round implants, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and big cells of a international physique to the biomaterial was noticed in gentle microscopy. Both teams displayed a fibrous response alongside with collagen deposition across the biomaterials. In the SEM, the photographs confirmed a better degradation price for the PLA/PCL blend in each implantation routes. The polymers implanted by way of IP exhibited a better degradation price in comparison with SC. These findings emphasize the biocompatibility of the PLA/PCL blend compatibilized with poly(ε-caprolactone-b-tetrahydrofuran), making this biopolymer an appropriate different in a range of biomedical applicatio.

Design issues for engineering 3D fashions to check vascular pathologies in vitro

Many cardiovascular ailments (CVD) are pushed by pathological remodelling of blood vessels, which might result in aneurysms, myocardial infarction, ischaemia and strokes. Aberrant remodelling is pushed by adjustments in vascular cell behaviours mixed with degradation, modification, or irregular deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The underlying mechanisms that drive the pathological remodelling of blood vessels are multifaceted and illness particular; nevertheless, unravelling them could also be key to growing therapies. Reductionist fashions of blood vessels created in vitro that mix cells with biomaterial scaffolds could function helpful analogues to check vascular illness development in a managed setting.
This evaluate presents the primary issues for growing such in vitro fashions. We talk about how the design of blood vessel fashions impacts experimental readouts, with a specific give attention to the upkeep of regular mobile phenotypes, methods that mimic regular cell-ECM interactions, and approaches that foster intercellular communication between vascular cell varieties. We additionally spotlight how selection of biomaterials, mobile preparations and the inclusion of mechanical stimulation utilizing fluidic gadgets collectively impression the flexibility of blood vessel fashions to imitate in vivo circumstances. In the longer term, by combining advances in supplies science, cell biology, fluidics and modelling, it might be attainable to create blood vessel fashions which are patient-specific and can be utilized to develop and take a look at therapies.
In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend compatibilized with poly(ε-caprolactone- b-tetrahydrofuran) in Wistar rats

Repair of segmental bone defect utilizing tissue engineered heterogeneous deproteinized bone doped with lithium

Lithium have been proven to play an necessary position in enhancing the osteogenic properties of biomaterials. This research goals to discover the osteogenic enchancment impact of tissue engineered heterogeneous deproteinized bone (HDPB) doped with lithium, and consider their effectiveness in the therapeutic of bone defects. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been co-cultured with totally different focus of lithium chloride. Cell proliferation in every group was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-dimetyl-2-thiazoly-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

BMSCs have been then co-cultured in osteogenic induction medium with totally different focus of lithium chloride, and the expression of associated mRNA was detected. The position of lithium in selling BMSCs osteogenic differentiation and inhibiting BMSCs lipogenic differentiation was additionally investigated. Biomechanical properties of the tibia have been evaluated at Eight weeks after operation. The tibial specimens of every group have been collected at 4 and Eight weeks after surgical procedure for histological examination and histological evaluation.

Micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and 3D reconstruction have been carried out at Eight weeks. The outcomes display that lithium can induce the osteogenic differentiation inhibit of adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by regulating the Wnt signaling pathway. The histological analysis additional licensed that common bone formation space in the group of tissue engineered HDPB doped with lithium was additionally considerably higher than that of HDPB alone group. Based on the above analysis, tissue engineered HDPB doped with lithium can successfully promote the regeneration of segmental bone defect, which can be utilized as a tissue engineering scaffold for medical trials.

EF1a control lentivirus (Zeo)

EF1a-Null-Zeo 1 x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 349
Description: Negative control lentivirus contains a null spacer insert under EF1a promoter, serves as the negative control of lentivurs treatment for the specificity of any target expression effects. It has the Zeocin selection under RSV promoter.

CMV control lentivirus (Hygro)

CMV-Null-Hygro 1 x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 349
Description: Negative control lentivirus contains a null spacer insert under CMV promoter, serves as the negative control of lentivurs treatment for the specificity of any target expression effects. It has the hygromycin selection under RSV promoter.

CMV control lentivirus (Zeo)

CMV-Null-Zeo 1 x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 349
Description: Negative control lentivirus contains a null spacer insert under CMV promoter, serves as the negative control of lentivurs treatment for the specificity of any target expression effects. It has the Zeocin selection under RSV promoter.

GFP Expressing Human Glioblastoma Cells

TR01-GFP 500,000 Cells
EUR 1354

GFP Expressing Human Gastric Carcinoma N87 Cells

TR02-GFP 500,000 Cells
EUR 1354

GFP Expressing Human Renal Adenocarcinoma Cells (ACHN)

TR04-GFP 500,000 Cells
EUR 1354

GFP Expressing Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells (DU 145)

TR03-GFP 500,000 Cells
EUR 1354

Lenti-HOXA10-GFP Lentivirus

LV646 10 ml
EUR 811

Lenti-HOXB8-GFP Lentivirus

LV634 10 ml
EUR 811

Lenti-HOXA9-GFP Lentivirus

LV640 10 ml
EUR 811

ISRE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP939-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter undera minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of ISRE (Interferon Stimulated Response Element). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ISRE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP940-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter undera minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of ISRE (Interferon Stimulated Response Element). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP941-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP941-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP941-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP941-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP942-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP943-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CRE_TRE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP944-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of cAMP response motif (CRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP945-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP945-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP945-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP945-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP946-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP947-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Gli-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP948-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embeded 8 tandem repeats of Gli responsive element (hedgehog pathway). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP949-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP949-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP949-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP949-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP950-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP951-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

G_RE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP952-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter embedded 4 tandem repeats of glucocorticoid response element (G-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP953-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP953-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP953-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP953-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP954-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP955-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

AP1-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP956-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of AP1 Responsive Element (AP1-RE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP957-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP957-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP957-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP957-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP958-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP959-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

SRE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP960-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of serum response element (SRE) . This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP961-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP961-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP961-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP961-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP962-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP963-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

RBP_JK-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP964-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of RBP-JK transcriptional responsive element (RBP-JK TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP965-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP965-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP965-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP965-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP966-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP967-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

NFkB-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP968-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of NFκB transcriptional response element (NFkB-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP969-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP969-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP969-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP969-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP970-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP971-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

H_RE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP972-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 6 tandem repeats of hypoxia transcriptional response element (H-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP973-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP973-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP973-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP973-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP974-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP975-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ER-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP976-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of estrogen receptor response element (ER-RE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP977-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP977-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP977-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP977-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP978-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP979-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

P53-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP980-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded with optimized tandem repeats of a few most potent P53 transcriptional response element. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP981-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP981-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus

LVP981-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP981-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP982-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP983-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

ARE-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP984-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 4 tandem repeats of antioxidant response element (ARE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP985-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP985-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP985-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP985-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP986-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP987-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CEBP-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP988-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a minimal promoter that embedded 8 tandem repeats of C/EBP transcriptional response element (C/EBP-TRE). This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP989-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP989-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP989-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP989-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP990-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP991-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

GATA2-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP992-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under GATA-2 promoter which dynamically expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in the central nervous system. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP993-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP993-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP993-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP993-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP994-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP995-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

B29-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP996-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under a human Immunoglobulin gene's promoter which demonstrates B-cell specific expression. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP997-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP997-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP997-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP997-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP998-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-Luc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP999-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Firefly luciferase reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutiveRSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD14-Rluc (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP1000-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express Renilla luciferase reporter under the human CD14 promoter which demonstrates strongly upregulated expression during monocytic cell differentiation. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD43-GFP (Bsd) Lentivirus 

LVP1001-B 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD43 promoter which expressed on the surface of leukocytes and platelets.. This lentivirus also contain the Blasticidin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD43-GFP (Neo) Lentivirus 

LVP1001-N 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD43 promoter which expressed on the surface of leukocytes and platelets.. This lentivirus also contain the Neomycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD43-GFP (Puro) Lentivirus 

LVP1001-P 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD43 promoter which expressed on the surface of leukocytes and platelets. This lentivirus also contain the puromycin selection marker under RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD43-GFP (RFP) Lentivirus 

LVP1001-R 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express GFP reporter under the human CD43 promoter which expressed on the surface of leukocytes and platelets. This lentivirus also contain the RFP selection marker under the constitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

CD43-RFP (GFP) Lentivirus 

LVP1002-G 1x107 IFU/ml x 200ul
EUR 552
Description: Pre-made lentivirus express RFP reporter under the human CD43 promoter which expressed on the surface of leukocytes and platelets.. This lentivirus also contain the GFP selection marker under the consitutive RSV promoter, provided in DMEM medium with 10% FBS and 60ug/ml of polybrene.

Complex coacervation permits necessary moist adhesion processes in pure and synthetic methods. However, existed artificial coacervate adhesives present restricted moist adhesion properties, non-thermoresponsiveness, and inferior biodegradability, drastically hampering their translations. Herein, by harnessing supramolecular meeting and rational protein design, we current a temperature-sensitive moist bioadhesive fabricated via recombinant protein and surfactant. Mechanical efficiency of the bioglue system is actively tunable with thermal triggers.


3 Differences Between Antibody Affinity And Avidity

Antigen-antibody junctions are specific, non-covalent and reversible interactions, mediated by hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Both affinity and avidity are two fundamental parameters when describing the strength of these unions.

In this entry we collect the 3 main differences between affinity and avidity of the antibodies .

The main difference between antibody affinity and avidity is described by the very definition of these parameters: while Affinity is the measure of the strength of an individual interaction between a specific epitope and an antibody binding site, Avidity is the measure of the total binding between the epitopes of the antigen and the binding sites of the multivalent antibody.

From here, these are the 3 main differences between affinity and avidity of the antibodies:

1.- WHAT INTERACTIONS DO THEY MEASURE?

Affinity

It measures the interaction between an individual epitope of the antigen and an individual binding site of the antibody.

Avidity

It measures the interaction between all epitopes of an antigen and all the binding sites of a multivalent antibody.

2.- WHAT DO THEY DEPEND ON?

Affinity

The affinity constant is defined according to the same basic thermodynamic principles that govern any reversible biomolecular interaction:

differences between affinity and avidity of antibodies

Avidity

Avidity depends on three main factors:

  • The affinity of the antibody for the antigen epitope
  • The valence of the antigen and the antibody
  • The structural arrangement of the interaction

3.- WHAT REFLECTS ITS VALUE?

Affinity

Affinity reflects the net result of the forces of attraction and repulsion between an individual epitope of an antigen and its corresponding binding site on the antibody. A high affinity value will be the result of a strong interaction with more attractive forces between the epitope and the binding site.

Avidity

Avidity reflects the sum of all the affinities of an antigen-antibody complex. Its value will always be greater than the sum of the individual affinity values.


5 Applications Of Monoclonal Antibodies

Due to their high specificity and selectivity, the antibodies have become a biochemical tool of great importance in many applications in the field of biomedicine and other fields.

In this post we collect the main 5 applications of monoclonal antibodies .

1.- APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

The high specificity and sensitivity of antibodies make these agents highly useful as biomedical research reagents for the identification, characterization, quantification or purification of different molecules, as well as for blocking cellular mechanisms or marking cells.

Some of the techniques using antibodies include:

  • Western Blot
  • ELISAs
  • Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Flow cytometry
  • In vivo preclinical studies
2.- APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS

Monoclonal antibodies have also become fundamental components in many diagnostic tests for infection detection, allergy identification, hormone quantification, and biomarker identification, among others.

  • Diagnosis by biochemical analysis

Monoclonal antibodies are used as reagents in diagnostic tests based on techniques such as ELISA, RIA or lateral flow.

Some of the best-known applications include pregnancy detection, the identification of hormonal disorders or the detection of tumor markers.

  • Diagnostic imaging

Monoclonal antibodies can also be labeled and administered intravenously to locate specific sites that will later be detected by radioactivity.

Some of these applications include the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer and bacterial infections.

3.- APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES IN THERAPY

Monoclonal antibodies are also used in the treatment and monitoring of various diseases. These applications are divided into two main groups:

  • Therapeutic agents:
    • Administration of antibodies to induce passive immunity in cases of immunodeficiencies
    • Antibodies against specific targets of certain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or different types of cancer such as colorectal or breast cancer.
  • Signaling or marking agents

Monoclonal antibodies can be conjugated to different molecules such as toxins, drugs or radioisotopes so that they can be selectively transported to the target tissue, thus increasing their efficacy while reducing their toxicity.

4.- INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

The monoclonal antibodies have become an indispensable tool in protein purification obtained a large scale by genetic engineering techniques, for subsequent therapeutic use. They are used to purify therapeutic proteins such as interferon, insulin or growth hormone, among others.

Genetically engineered vaccines against various viral or bacterial antigens can also be purified using monoclonal antibodies.

On the other hand, in the field of the food industry, antibodies also play a critical role in the area of food safety and food traceability , using techniques such as ELISA or Western Blot or the use of biosensors.

5.- OTHER APPLICATIONS OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

Among the most recent applications of monoclonal antibodies we can find the following:

  • Catalytic monoclonal antibodies

Also known as Catmabs or Abzymes , they have catalytic activity similar to that of enzymes, with the advantage that while enzymes and their catalytic functions are limited, antibodies can be generated against practically any antigen of interest.

  • Autoantibody fingerprint

It is a new category of autoantibodies not related to diseases and specific to each individual, forming a “fingerprint of autoantibodies” that can be used to identify people in forensic medicine.